The Waltz begins with a pickup to the tonic (I) of ‘C-sharp’ minor, the key of the Sub-Mediant (VI). Note that harmonic functions (I, II, V), etc. are placed below the bass clef, and harmonic identities (M, m, x), etc. between the clefs.
The super-tonic below (II) is an altered dominant (x) with ‘F-dbl-sharp’ as the major 3rd, and ‘A-sharp’) the normal (perfect) 5th. The dominant (V) in the third measure is also an altered dominant (x), with ‘B-sharp’ as the major 3rd of the chord, and ‘F-sharp’ the minor 7th. The first two beats of measure 4 are a carry-over from the previous measure in the treble, however they function differently, with the two beats in measure 3 functioning as root and 7th of the dominant (x). The same two beats in the treble in measure 4 now function as a 9/11/13 of the minor tonic (Im). It must be heard this way. Play all the notes together on the first and second beats in measure 4 and you will understand what Chopin has written. Note that the 3rd, ‘E’ is missing until the third beat.
Measure 5 begins the phrase on the sub-mediant (VI). Measure 6 changes chords but keeps the ‘E’ in the bass as a ‘pedal’. In any case, the chord is a ‘G-sharp’ dominant chord without its root, ‘G-sharp’. ‘B-sharp’ is the major 3rd, and ‘F-sharp’ is the minor 7th, the two characteristic intervals of the dominant (x). ‘A’ is the minor 9th.
 The issue of harmonic function and identity must be the first effort, including locating roots. See ‘Learning to Analyze’.
 Theorists will argue that the D# and the F#, the 9th and 11th respectively are ‘non-harmonic suspension notes that resolve on the 3rd bar. There are two problems with this analysis: 1. There is no such thing as ‘non-harmonic’ notes, as all notes contribute to the harmony. 2 The sound of the chord on the first two beats is totally dismissed.
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